Google Analytics in depth

(DO THIS: Describe all operations in this tutorial using Google tag Manager (GTM))

What is Google Analytics?
Wiki: Google Analytics is a freemium web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website (digital?) traffic.

What data does Google Analytics track/report?

Tracks outbound links from your website

What properties does GA track?
GA tracks data from:
– websites
– mobile apps
– Internet-connected devices (online point-of-sales system, video game console, customer relationship management system).

Business model
Free – Google Analytics
Paid – Google Analytics 360

Lauched in
November 2005

1. Classical GA

  1. Universal Analytics
    Universal Analytics (and analytics.js) is now the standard for Analytics. The key differences from the previous versions are:
    -> cross-platform tracking
    -> flexible tracking code to collect data from any device
    Universal Analytics introduces three new versions of the tracking code you can implement to meet your specific technical needs. Use the analytics.js JavaScript library for websites, the Analytics SDKs (v2.x or higher) for mobile app tracking, and the Measurement Protocol for other digital devices, like game consoles and information kiosks.
    -> introduction of custom dimensions and custom metrics
    -> Implement Enhanced Ecommerce

Which Version of Google Analytics Is Right For You?

Additional Versions
Google Analytics 360 (previously ‘Google Analytics Premium’)
With Google Analytics 360, your team can access advanced tools, like Unsampled Reports, BigQuery Export, and Data Driven Attribution, in addition to all the standard Analytics features and reports. Google Analytics 360 also includes a service level agreement that covers data collection, data freshness, and reporting, a higher processing limit, and access to dedicated support specialists, Back up Custom Reports with Custom Tables.

Google Analytics for Mobile Apps (an SDK that allows gathering usage data from iOS and Android Apps)




5 Google Analytics Features You Probably Don’t Use Enough (Or Haven’t Even Heard Of)

  • Advertising integration with AdWords

  • AdSense

  • Measuring ‘Goals’
    A goal represents a completed activity, called a conversion, that contributes to the success of your business. Examples of goals include:
    -> making a purchase (for an ecommerce site),
    -> completing a game level (for a mobile gaming app),
    -> submitting a contact information form (for a marketing or lead generation site).

Every goal can have a monetary value, so you can see how much that conversion is worth to your business.

NOTE: Google Analytics offers a maximum of 20 goals per view in your account.

Types of Goals

Goal Type Description Example
Destination A specific location loads Thank you for registering! web page or app screen
Duration Sessions that lasts a specific amount of time or longer 10 minutes or longer spent on a support site
Pages/Screens per session A user views a specific number of pages or screens 5 pages or screens have been loaded
Event An action defined as an Event is triggered Social recommendation, video play, ad click

Another kind of goal is smart goal
Smart Goals uses machine learning to examine dozens of signals about your website visits to determine which of those are most likely to result in a conversion.

Should you really use Smart Goals?

How Smart Are Smart Goals?

Do Not Use Google Smart Goals

Prerequisites for smart goals

  • Link your Analytics and AdWords account(s).
  • The linked AdWords account must have sent at least 500 clicks to the selected Analytics view over the past 30 days before you can set up Smart Goals.

    If the linked account falls below 250 clicks over the past 30 days for the selected view, Smart Goals will be deactivated until the clicks rise again to 500 or more.

  • The reporting view must not receive more than 10 million sessions in 30 days.
  • The Data Sharing setting Google products and services must be turned on for your Analytics account.

Goal Funnels
A funnel is the path or sequence of steps/pages that you expect users to visit on their way to complete a ‘Destination’ type of Goal. Analytics can record where users enter and exit the path on the way towards your goal. This data appears in the Goal Flow and Funnel reports.

Goal Funnels help to:
To understand from which pages visitors abandon the funnel and where they go after that. In GA, funnels can only be applied to a ‘Destination’ type of goal.

Creating a goal

  • Select the Admin tab and navigate to the desired account, property and view.
  • In the VIEW column, click Goals.
  • Click + NEW GOAL or Import from Gallery to create a new goal, or click an existing goal to edit its configuration.

You have 3 basic options for creating goals:

  • using a goal template
    1. Select a Template from the goal categories viz. Revenue, Acquisition, Inquiry, Engagement are the larger business objectives that motivate the goal templates. These categories don’t affect any data or your reports.
    2. Click Continue to continue setting up your goal.
  • creating custom goals
    • Select Custom from the list of options. Click Continue.
    • In the ‘Goal description section, Enter a name for your goal
    • Choose a ‘Goal slot ID’ – Enter a ‘Goal ID / Goal Set’ combination from the 20 available Goal IDs divided into 4 Goal Sets of 5 Goal IDs. This helps you categorize similar goals.
    • then select a goal Type from the following and click Continue. Then, in the ‘Goal Details’ section,
      • Destination – specify the destination page; toggle the ‘Funnel’ switch to enable/disable funnels. If enabled, specify the name and URL (relative URL e.g. ‘/step1/’) for each step of the funnel
      • Duration – specify the minimum time in H/M/S
      • Pages per screen – Specify the minimum pages/screens per sessions
      • Event – Choose the Category, Action, Label & Value; choose ‘Use the Event value as the Goal Value for the conversion’
    • NOTE: For all goal types, you can optionally specify a ‘Goal value’ which is a monetary value
    • Click ‘Verify this Goal’ to see how often this Goal would have converted based on your data from the past 7 days
    • Click Click Save
  • creating Smart Goals

Tracking goals
In the ‘Reporting’ tab, in the ‘Conversions’ section, click ‘Goals’.

  • Overview
  • Goal URLs
  • Reverse Goal Path
  • Funnel Visualization
  • Goal Flow
    The Goal Flow report shows the path your traffic traveled through a funnel towards a Goal conversion. This report can help you see if users are navigating your content as expected, or if there are problems, such as high drop-off rates or unexpected loops.Use the Goal Flow report to investigate questions like:

    • Where do users enter my funnel—at the first step, or are they jumping in somewhere in the middle?
    • Are there a lot of unexpected exits from a step in the middle of the funnel?
    • Is there a place where traffic loops back?
    • Is there one segment of traffic that acts differently than other segments? Is it converting more or less often?
  • Smart Goals

Turning off goal recording
Admin -> Account -> Property -> View -> Goals
Toggle the ‘Recording’ switch for the goal you want.

The Definitive Guide to Google Analytics Goals

  • Asset sharing
    Assets are tools that you create in Analytics to help you customize your data analysis. Assets are created and managed at the reporting view level.

Assets you can share:
-> Custom Segments
-> Goals
-> Custom Channel Groupings
-> Custom Attribution Models
-> Custom Reports are all considered assets in Analytics.

  • eCommerce reporting

(What is ‘Enhanced Commerce’?)

  • Google Website Optimizer (rebranded as ‘Google Analytics Content Experiments’)

  • Cohort analysis (Cohort analysis is a study that focuses on the activities of a group of people who share a common characteristic over a particular period of time.

  • Event tracking

  • Remarketing

  • Content analytics

  • Intelligence Events
    -> Automatic Alerts
    -> Custom Alerts

Obsolete features

The following are being deprecated:

  • ga.js
  • urchin.js
  • WAP/server-side snippets
  • YT / MO
  • Custom variables
  • User defined variables


  • A user can have 100 site profiles.

  • It is limited to sites which have a traffic of fewer than 5 million pageviews per month (roughly 2 pageviews per second) unless the site is linked to an AdWords campaign.

  • Google Analytics limits reports to 500,000 randomly sampled sessions at the profile level for its calculations.

  • Maximum 50 properties can be added to a GA account. To raise this limit, please reach out to your account manager.

  • A property can have a maximum of 25 views

Filters require up to 24 hours before they are applied to your data.

  • You can have up to 4 segments applied to your reports at any one time.

A user can have:

  • 1000 segments that can be applied/edited in any view, plus
  • 100 segments that can be applied/edited only by that user in only View A, plus
  • 100 segments that can be applied/edited only by that user in only View B

A view can have:

  • 100 segments per user that can be applied/edited only by that user in that view
  • 100 segments that can be applied/edited by any user in only that view

There are 20 indices available for different custom dimensions and 20 indices for custom metrics in each property. Premium accounts have 200 indices available for custom dimensions and 200 for custom metrics.

Standard accounts that send more than 200,000 sessions per day to Analytics will result in the reports being refreshed only once a day. For Premium accounts, this limit is extended to 2 billion hits per month.

Google Analytics allows you to define 20 goals per view.

Prerequisities / Precautions

JavaScript must be enabled in the browser.

Cookies must be enabled in the browser.

Also, the visitor’s firewall should not block or delete cookies (Google Analytics doesn’t track a visitor unless it can accept a cookie. Cookies are important because they are used to tag a visitor and aggregate that visitors behavior over the course of multiple visits.). Again, any visitor to the computer/device must not clear cookies.

Ad filtering programs and extensions (such as Firefox’s Adblock, and NoScript) and the mobile phone app Disconnect Mobile must be blocked/removed as they can block the Google Analytics Tracking Code.

If you’re running other scripts on your page, make sure you’re not using any variables that Analytics uses.

If you have replicated your website on another server for testing, make sure you remove Google analytics tracking snippet from the test site or add a filter to exclude traffic from the domain where the test site is hosted.

Once you setup a filter (only on account level or on view level as well?) you will lose any data that you’ve excluded until you turn off the filter. If you set up a filter on your main account to view traffic on only will lose the traffic to your root domain.

Ensure that you don’t have multiple tracking code snippets in your page for the same property. Also, ensure that you are not tracking the same property using both a tracking snippet as well as Google Tag Manager. Finally, ensure that you are not tracking a property using both the ga.ja as well as analytics.js versions of the tracking code.

Getting Started with Google Analytics

Ways to setup Google Analytics

  1. Universal Analytics
  2. Google Tag Manager
  3. In a custom UI (e.g. GoDaddy, Magento, Prestashop)

NOTE: Ensure that you are not using more than one way to setup GA for your site (unless you’re setting them up differently?)

Setting up Google Analytics for your website (to track inbound data)

a. Visit, click ‘Sign In’, click ‘Google Analytics’.

b. Setup a property

You need Edit permission on the account to add properties. To set up a property:

  1. Sign in to your Analytics account.
  2. Select the Admin tab.
  3. In the ACCOUNT column, use the dropdown menu to select the account to which you want to add the property.
  4. In the PROPERTY column, select Create new property from the dropdown menu.
  5. Select either Website or Mobile app.
  6. Enter the Website or App Name.
  7. (Web only) Enter the Web Site URL.
  8. Select an Industry Category.
  9. Select the Reporting Time Zone.
  10. Click Get Tracking ID.This tracking ID will have to be placed instead of the placeholder tracking ID in the tracking code
  11. On the subsequent page, copy the Tracking ID (e.g. ‘UA-43790413-2’)

c. Get tracking snippet

  • In the Admin tab, select an account from the drop-down menu in the ACCOUNT column.
  • Select a property from the drop-down menu in the PROPERTY column.
  • Under PROPERTY, click Tracking Info > Tracking Code. Copy the tracking snippet/code.

d. Add tracking snippet to all pages of your website

i. Static website: To collect data, you must paste the Analytics tracking code into the source code (before the closing ‘head' tag) of every web page you wish to track.

ii. Dynamic website: Paste your tracking code snippet into its own include file, then include the file in your page template, just before the closing </head> tag.

iii. If you don’t have access to source code:

Here are some Analytics implementation instructions for some common providers:

iv. Internet-connected device such as online point-of-sales system, video game console, customer relationship management system:

NOTE: Once you have successfully installed Analytics tracking, it may take up to 24 hours for data such as traffic referral information, user characteristics, and browsing information to appear in your reports.

Setting up GA for a site that uses frames
Include the tracking code in the <head> section of the frameset (parent) page, as well as directly before the </head> tag of each child frame that you want to track. If you place your tracking code within a <noframe> tag thinking that this is equivalent to the body, the code will not run and no data will be recorded.

Configuring tracking code using Google Tag Manager?
Why use GTM?

Verify your GA setup with Google Tag Assistant

Install Google Tag Assistant – a free Chrome browser extension that shows you if Google Analytics tags are firing correctly (does it work with analytics.js?).

After installing the extension, you will see an icon indicating the status of the tag on the page you’re viewing.
  • A grey icon with an ‘x’ indicates that no code was found on the page
  • A green indicator will show if a valid tag was found. The number in the icon indicates the number of tags that were found
  • A blue indicator will show there are suggestions on improving overall tagging health
  • A yellow indicator will show that a tag was found with minor implementation issues
  • A red indicator will show that a tag was found with critical implementation issues

Should you host the Analytics JavaScript file (ga.js/analytics.js) locally (i.e. on your own server?)

Storing or serving the JavaScript file locally is not recommended, as a local copy will not get automatically updated from the copy on Google’s servers.

Setting up Google Analytics to track outbound data i.e. find out when users click a link to leave your site.

You can use Analytics Events to track clicks on links that take users to a website other than your own.

If you have already placed the tracking snippet in your website, you should add the below script in your page header, but not within the basic Analytics tracking code snippet.

Your outbound clicks will appear in your Analytics Events reports with a Category of “outbound” and an Action of “click”.

This example assumes that you are using the analytics.js tracking code.

* Function that tracks a click on an outbound link in Analytics.
* This function takes a valid URL string as an argument, and uses that URL string
* as the event label. Setting the transport method to ‘beacon’ lets the hit be sent
* using ‘navigator.sendBeacon’ in browser that support it.
var trackOutboundLink = function(url) {
ga(‘send’, ‘event’, ‘outbound‘, ‘click‘, url, {
‘transport’: ‘beacon’,
‘hitCallback’: function(){document.location = url;}

Tracking outbound links using Google Tag Manager
If you use Google Tag Manager to manage your Analytics tracking, follow the instructions in Analytics Events to implement events.

You will then need to add (or modify) the onclick attribute to your links that you want to be tracked, as follows:

<a href="" onclick="trackOutboundLink(''); return false;">Check out</a>

Working with redirects

You should place the Analytics tracking code on the redirecting page as well as on the landing page.

Note that you may not be able to successfully implement the tracking code on all redirect pages as some redirecting pages may not have any code. Additionally, some browsers may actually redirect before the JavaScript call from the code can be made.


Check if a web page uses Google Analytics or not

You can either view the source code, which instructs the browser what to load, or use browser-based developer tools to see if the page is sending information to Analytics.

NOTE: In some cases, a page can call Analytics from another source, and thus you won’t be able to see the GA tracking code in the page’s source code. To check if analytics is being used in such a case, check Developer Tools as follows:

  • From the browser menu in Chrome, select View.
  • Select Developer, then Developer Tools.
  • Click Network. If you don’t see any data in the table, refresh the page.
  • In the Initiator column, look for either analytics.js (for Universal Analytics) or ga.js (for classic Analytics).

Check which pages in a website have GA tracking set up

How to Check if Google Analytics Is Installed On Every Page using Screaming Frog

Tracking a specific page in a website


Cross-domain tracking

Cross domain tracking (also known as ‘site linking’) makes it possible for Analytics to combine the analytics data for two (or more?) sessions on separate sites (or subdomains) by a single user as a single session.

With cross-domain tracking, you can collect data from multiple websites (or subdomains) into a single account property. This lets you see data from different sites in the same reporting view.

Scenarios where cross-domain tracking is needed

#1 When your users’ web session spans across two or more domains.

#2 When your checkout process occurs on a different domain (quite common in case of affiliate websites)

#3 When your goal conversions take place on a different domain.

For instance, you have an online store and a 3rd-party shopping cart hosted on another domain, such as:


Without cross domain tracking, a user who arrives to your online store and then proceeds to your 3rd-party shopping cart is counted as two separate users, with two separate sessions of different durations.

Cross domain tracking makes it possible for Analytics to see this as a single session by a single user.

Setting up cross-domain tracking

QUESTION: How to link three or more domains using cross-domain tracking?

Working with subdomains

Analytics views subdomains like as distinct from primary domains such as

If you want to track data from ‘’ as well as its subdomain ‘’, you will need to place tracking codes individually for both the primary domain as well as the subdomain.

Guide to Tracking Multiple Subdomains in Google Analytics

Setting up Google Analytics for your mobile app

How to set up GA for Windows Phone apps

Customizing your analytics / Creating custom reports

How visitor tracking works

  • The user places a snippet of JavaScript code (known as ‘JavaScript tracking snippet’) to every page of the website (or only to the pages that he wants to be tracked?).

  • When the client browses the page (if JavaScript is enabled in the browser), the tracking snippet collects visitor data and sends it to a Google data collection server in the form of a list of parameters attached to a single-pixel GIF image request.

Where should you place the GA tracking snippet?

The code should be added before the closing </head> tag of every page in the website that you want tracked ( (Source)

ga.js vs. analytics.js
ga.js is a legacy library. If you are starting a new implementation we recommend you use the latest version of this library, analytics.js. For exisiting implementations, learn how to migrate from ga.js to analytics.js.

The analytics.js tracking snippet

<!-- Google Analytics -->

(i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o),

ga('create', 'UA-XXXXX-Y', 'auto');
ga('send', 'pageview');

<!-- End Google Analytics -->

Alternate tracking snippet / Should you use GA tracking snippet synchronously or asynchronously?

The alternative async tracking snippet below adds support for preloading, which will provide a small performance boost on modern browsers, but can degrade to synchronous loading and execution on IE 9 and older mobile browsers that do not recognize the async script attribute. Only use this tracking snippet if your visitors primarily use modern browsers to access your site.

<!-- Google Analytics -->||function(){(ga.q=ga.q||[]).push(arguments)};ga.l=+new Date;
ga('create', 'UA-XXXXX-Y', 'auto');
ga('send', 'pageview');

 async src=''>
<!-- End Google Analytics -->

Migrating from ga.js to analytics.js

How the tracking snippet works

  1. Creates a <script> element that starts asynchronously downloading the analytics.js JavaScript library from
  2. Initializes a global ga function (called the ga() command queue) that allows you to schedule commands to be run once the analytics.js library is loaded and ready to go.
  3. Adds a command to the ga() command queue to create a new tracker object for the property specified via the 'UA-XXXXX-Y' parameter.
  4. Adds another command to the ga() command queue to send a pageview to Google Analytics for the current page.

Structure of the Google Analytics account
Google Analytics lets you have multiple accounts. Each account can have multiple properties and each property can have many views.

An account is your access point for Analytics, and the top-most level of organization.

A property is a website, mobile application, or device (e.g. a kiosk or point-of-sale device). Within an Analytics account, you add the properties from which you want to collect data.

A view is your access point for reports; a defined view of data from a property i.e. it determines which data from your property appears in the reports. Views are also known as profiles.

Navigating Google Analytics reports  / Making sense of the Google Analytics UI

  • Navigation links:
  • Home presents you with a list of all of your Accounts and Properties and gives you a quick overview of their performance.
  • Reporting gives you access to Analytics reports and dashboards.
  • Customization lets you create custom reports and gives you access to unsampled reports (Premium feature).
  • Admin is where you manage Analytics (create new properties, change user permissions, add integrations, etc.).
  • Linking and configuring AdWords in GA

  • Uninking AdWords in GA

  • Linking and configuring Google Search Console (i.e. Google Webmaster Tools) in GA
    If you associate a Google Analytics property with a site in your Search Console account, you’ll be able to see Search Console data in your Google Analytics reports. You’ll also be able to access Google Analytics reports directly from the Links to your site, and Sitelinks pages in Search Console. Note that you can only associate a website; you cannot associate an app.

  • Unlinking Google Search Console in GA

  • AdSense

  • User and permission management
    An Analytics account can have many users. Each user’s access permissions can be set at the account, property or view level.

Adding a user

  • Select the Admin tab and navigate to the desired account/property/view.
  • In the ACCOUNT, PROPERTY, or VIEW column (depending upon whether you want to add the user at the account, property, or view level), click User Management.
  • Under Add permissions for, enter the email address for the user’s Google Account.
  • Select the permissions you want. Learn more about permissions.
  • Select Notify this user by email to send a notification to each user you’re adding.
  • Click Add.

User permissions

  • Manage Users: Can manage account users (add/delete users, assign permissions). Does not include Edit or Collaborate.
  • Edit: Can perform administrative and report-related functions (e.g., add/edit/delete accounts, properties, views, filters, goals, etc., but not manage users), and see report data.Edit permission is required at the account level to create filters. Edit permission is required at the view level to apply filters.Includes Collaborate.
  • Collaborate: Can create personal assets, and share them. Can collaborate on shared assets, for example, edit a dashboard or annotation. Includes Read & Analyze.
  • Read & Analyze: Can see report and configuration data; can manipulate data within reports (e.g., filter a table, add a secondary dimension, create a segment); can create personal assets, and share them, and see shared assets. Cannot collaborate on shared assets.

Personal user settings

  • Using filters to customize views
    A filter can be applied to a view to include only specific subset of traffic, exclude unwanted data, or to search and replace certain pieces of information. Filters can be created at either:
  1. Account level
    Filters created at the account level need to be applied to one or more views (Q: What is the purpose of allowing account-level filters that are not assigned to a view?)

  2. View level

Filters are account-level objects. If you edit a filter at the view level, you are also changing the filter at the account level. This means that any other views that use this filter will also be affected by your change. If you want to customize a single instance of an existing filter used by multiple views, create a new filter and apply it to that single view.

Filters allow you to limit and modify the data that is included in a view. For example, you can use filters to exclude traffic from particular IP addresses, focus on a specific subdomain or directory, or convert dynamic page URLs into readable text strings.

NOTE: Filters require up to 24 hours before they are applied to your data.

Types of filters

  • Predefined filters
    Predefined filter allow you to:
    -> ‘only include’ or
    -> ‘exclude’
    source or destination data from reports. You cannot customize predefined filters.

The source or destination data can be either of:
-> traffic from the ISP domain
-> trafic from the IP addresses
-> traffic to the subdirectories
-> traffic to the hostname

  • Custom filters
    Advanced Custom Filters are filters that can rewrite and rename data in a field based on the data in one or two other fields.

The filter actions for custom filters include:

  • Exclude: This type of filter excludes log file lines (hits) that match the Filter Pattern. Matching lines are ignored in their entirety: for example, a filter that excludes Chrome also excludes all other information in that log line, such as visitor, path, referral, and domain information.
  • Include: This type of filter includes log file lines (hits) that match the Filter Pattern. All non-matching hits are ignored and any data in non-matching hits is unavailable in the reports.
  • Lowercase / Uppercase: Converts the contents of the field into all uppercase or all lowercase characters. These filters only affect letters, and do not affect special characters or numbers.
  • Search & Replace: This is a simple filter that you can use to search for a pattern within a field and replace the found pattern with an alternate form.
  • Advanced: This type of filter allows you to build a field from one or two other fields. The filtering engine applies the expressions in the two Extract fields to the specified fields and then constructs a third field using the Constructor expression. Read Advanced Filters for more information.GA allows you to use all or part of Field A and/or all or part of Field B to create a new output using regular expressions. Parentheses signal that you’re grouping an item within a field or whole field itself. Using the dollar sign ($) tells GA to output data from a specific field. $A tells the filter to pull from field A and $B will pull from field B. The number following A or B specifies the order of the item you’re selecting. For example $A1 represents the first item in Field A, while $B2 represents the second item in Field B.

The filter field can be chosen from the following set of fields:

Creating a filter

You can either:

– Create a new filter

– Apply existing filter

Verifying a filter

Importance of the order of filters – which filters should be placed at the beginning, which filters should be placed at the end,

Changing order of filters


Combining data from two or more filters into one filter/view

Setup custom dimensions

You can create a custom dimension at the following levels:
-> Hit
-> Session
-> User
-> Product

In the PROPERTY column, click Custom Definitions, then click Custom Dimensions.


Click New Custom Dimension.

Add a Name.

Select the Scope (either Hit, Session, User or Product)

Check the ‘Active’ checkbox

Modify your tracking code


Stop using an existing custom dimension (or metric)
Uncheck the ‘Active’ checkbox

Setup custom metrics

  • Goals

  • Funnels (?)
    A funnel can be set up to track a series of pages that users visit as they browse your website. Funnels can only be created when you have Goals set up to track URL destinations of visitors.

  • Events
    Event is a type of hit used to track user interactions with content. Examples of user interactions commonly tracked with Events include downloads, mobile ad clicks, gadgets, Flash elements, AJAX embedded elements, and video plays.

  • Intelligent events

  • Annotations (?)

  • Enhanced Commerce

    Enhanced Ecommerce tracking in Google Analytics – Beginners Guide

  • Segments
    A segment is a subset of your Analytics data. A segment is made up of one or more non-destructive filters that do not alter the underlying data. For example, of your entire set of users, one segment might be users from a particular country or city. Adding one or more segments to a report can help you compare and contrast your data in meaningful ways. It can also help you use subsets of data as the basis for specific audiences (e.g, specific groups of users you target with AdWords campaigns or Optimize experiments). You can apply up to four segments at a time (to a report?).

Creating a new segment

You have two options when creating new segments:

There is a huge drawback in creating them via the admin interface, as you cannot directly evaluate them on the same page.

You have the option to segment on:

  • Demographics: age, gender and other demographical factors
  • Technology: browser, screen resolution, mobile device and other technological factors
  • Behavior: # of sessions, transactions per user/visit/hit, all related to particular behavior
  • Date of First Session: cohort analysis
  • Traffic Sources: segment sessions or users on specific campaign parameters
  • Conditions: segment sessions or users on one or more characteristics
  • Sequences: segment sessions or users on sequential conditions

Click ‘Visibility’ link at the right to select the view in which you like the segment to appear (either currently active view or all views).

Test a newly created segment

Adding a segment to a report

Building (specific) audiences with segments

Compare a segment with other segments
Assume you have three different segments that show if a conversion takes place after:
a. 1 visit to the site
a. 2-4 visits to the site
a. 5 or more visits to the site

Now, to compare the results of these three segments, you need to ..

  • Custom variables

  • Site Search
    The Site Search report is focused on recording what keywords people have typed in the search bar of your website. on your website.

Site search helps businesses ponder over questions like:

  • “Should we take another look at the usability of our navigation? More than 10% of people are using our site’s search engine.”
  • “A lot of people from organic channels are looking for terms not related to our business. Why we are ranking for non-relevant keywords?”
  • “We are seeing trends of certain keywords. Should we feature this content more clearly on the site?”
  • Internal searches can also reveal areas of growth opportunity by uncovering situations where certain information may be unclear or lacking on your site. For example, if a large percentage of visitors are searching for your return policy or for specific support pages, this may be a sign this information should be made more visible on your site.

Setting up Site Search
On the ‘Admin’ page, choose the view you want,  click ‘View Settings’. On the ‘View Settings’ page, in the ‘Site Search Settings’ section, switch the ‘Site search Tracking’ on.

1. Next, if the URL that appears for the search results page is in query form i.e. is of the form:

Next, in the ‘Query parameter’ field, enter only the parameter name which appears in the search results’ URL after you submit a search.

For instance, if the search results URL is:

you should enter ‘s’ in the ‘Query parameter’ field.

2. Else, if the URL of the search results page appears as a page path (and not as a query) is of the form: advanced filter should be used.

First, navigate to Filters > New Filter under your view.

After choosing the filter name, select ‘Custom’ and ‘Advanced’ in the filter’s settings.

For ‘Field A -> Extract A‘, enter ‘/search/site/(.)’ where ‘/search/site/’ is the path for the search, and ‘.‘ is the regular expression that represents any character and any number of characters- so we are storing anything after the slash.

Keep the ‘Field B -> Extract B‘ blank.

Next, in the ‘Output To -> Constructor‘ drop down, select ‘Search term’ and type ‘$A1’ into the input box. This tells Google Analytics to grab the user-defined value from Field A and output it as a search term.

3. Else, if the search results’ URL has both a page path as well as a query parameter
(Find out how to do this)

Viewing Site Search reports
To view your site search results, in the ‘Reporting’ tab, in the left navigation, go to Behavior > Site Search.

-> Overview

-> Usage
The ‘Usage’ report shows more detailed data about users who searched within the site as opposed to those who didn’t.

-> Search terms
You can see every term searched within the timeframe you’re reviewing.

To get value from this report, you can analyze the data in several different ways:

  • Look at top searches (sorted by Total Unique Searches) to determine what people are most commonly looking for on your site. Do any of these terms indicate content that should be highlighted more readily for people coming to your site? If they’re searching for it, they may be confused about how to get to it in the interface.
  • Look at search terms showing a high average Time after Search. These indicate people are finding related content particularly valuable and are taking the time to read content or complete a purchase.
  • Use the search bar to search for multiple terms related to a topic. For instance, a search for juicer may yield juicer, juicers, best juicer, etc., all as relevant terms to people looking for information about juicers. These terms can help to guide future content, as well as show collective data for a topic.

-> Pages
The ‘Pages’ report shows you the pages where people started and ended their searches.

Tracking Internal Site Searches in Google Analytics

  • Alerts

  • Campaigns (?)

  • Content experiments

  • Custom reports
    A Custom Report is a report that you create. You pick the dimensions (City and Browser, for example) and metrics (Sessions, Pageviews, and Bounce Rate, for example) and decide how they should be displayed. You must specify at least one dimension and one metric.

Creating a custom report

  • Select the Customization tab, at the top of any page in Analytics.
  • Click +New Custom Report from the top of the table.
  • Enter a Title.
  • (Optional) Click ‘+add a report tab’ to add one or more report tabs
  • Select a report type: Explorer, Flat Table, or Map Overlay.
  • In the ‘Metric Groups’ section, specify a name for the default metric group, then add metric(s) using the ‘+add metric’ button. Select the metric type from:
    Ad Exchange
    Goal Conversions
    .. and select the metric.
    For instance, to add the ‘New Users’ metric, click the ‘Users’ metric type, and then select ‘New Users’.
  • You can add a new metric group by clicking the ‘+ Add metric group’ button
  • Add dimensions by clicking the ‘+ add dimension’ button in the ‘Dimension Drilldown’ section. Select a dimension type from:
    Custom Variables
    then select the dimension.
    For instance, to add the ‘Date’ metric, click the ‘Time’ metric type, and then select ‘Date’.
  • You can optionally specify filters by clicking the ‘+ add filter’ button in the ‘Filters’ section, then specify the dimension, specify whether to include or exclude the dimension from the report, and then specify the comparison and value for the dimension e.g. ‘Include’, ‘Gender’, ‘Equals’, ‘Male’
  • You can specify where this report should appear.
  • Click ‘Save’ to save the report.

Viewing custom reports

In the navigation links on the top bar, click ‘Customizations’. In the left navigation, click ‘Custom Reports’, then select Overview to see a table listing of all of your Custom Reports.

When viewing a specific report, you can also:
– Edit the report
– Email the report using the ‘Email’ tab
– Download the report using the ‘Export’ tab
– Share the report (only the custom report configuration is shared; no traffic data is shared). To do this, Customizations -> Overview (in the left navigation) -> click ‘Actions’ next to the report you want to share -> Share.

Sharing reports in your account with other users

Visual representation of reports

Recommended settings

The 8 Google Analytics Features Every Site MUST Have Enabled

  • Accounts
    -> Personal account

  • Properties

  • Views you should have
    -> Master view
    . A master view should have no filter to exclude or include sections of the data from the site/app being tracked. In this way, you will have a view for the property that contains all historical data since tracking began

-> Test views

Basic Google Analytics Filters for Every Site

  • Filters you must apply

-> Exclude payment-processing sites and bank sites e.g. Paypal,, (if you have an eCommerce site)
(You can also do this via Admin -> Property -> Tracking Info -> Referral Exclusion List)

-> View full-page URLs reports (by default, reports show only the Request URI i.e. page path and not the full URI)

Filter Type: Custom filter > Advanced
Field A: Hostname
Extract A: (.*)
Field B: Request URI
Extract B: (.*)
Output To: Request URI
Constructor: $A1$B1

-> Track traffic only from a specific gender (using a filter)

-> Track traffic only from desktop/mobile/tablet

  • Filter Name: Include Mobile Only
  • Filter Type: Custom > Include
  • Filter Field: Device Category
  • Filter Pattern (Select One): Mobile
  • Apply the filter to the Mobile Only View

-> Track pages only from a certain social network

-> Track social interactions (‘Like’, ‘+1’ button etc.)

-> Track page load speed of all pages (?)

-> Track pages that load in less than ‘x’ seconds

-> Track pages that load in more than ‘x’ seconds

-> Track traffic from all social media sites

-> Traffic that came from a particular landing page

-> Track traffic only from a specific subdomain

  • Filter Name: Include Only/li>
  • Filter Type: Custom > Include
  • Filter Field: Hostname
  • Filter Pattern: ^blogs\.exampleUSA\.com$

-> Track traffic from specific, multiple subdomains

-> Prepend hostname to Request URI (important especially when using cross-domain tracking)

  • Filter Name: Prepend Hostname to Request URI
  • Filter Type: Custom > Advanced
  • Field A -> Extract A:
    • Select Hostname
    • Enter (.*)
  • Field B -> Extract B:
    • Select Request URI
    • Enter (.*)
  • Output To -> Constructor:
    • Select Request URI
    • Enter $A1$B1
  • Select Field A Required
  • Select Override Output Field
  • Apply this filter to the Cross-Domain View

-> Re-order URLs in reports

-> Exclude development traffic

  • Filter Name: Exclude Dev Site Traffic/li>
  • Filter Type: Custom > Exclude
  • Filter Field: Hostname
  • Filter Pattern: Enter a regex pattern of all development hostnames for your website. For example, if the development hostnames are,, and you would enter ^dev\.example\.com$|^backend\.example\.com$|^stage\.example\.com$ in this field (or some similar Regex).

-> Track traffic originating from a specific site (or specific sites)

-> Track the time that visitors visit the site

-> Exclude testing/backup sites from being tracked

  • Filter Name: Exclude Dev Site Traffic
  • Filter Type: Custom > Exclude
  • Filter Field: Hostname
  • Filter Pattern: Enter a regex pattern of all development hostnames for your website. For example, if the development hostnames are,, and you would enter ^dev\.example\.com$|^backend\.example\.com$|^stage\.example\.com$ in this field (or some similar Regex).

Basic Google Analytics Filters for Every Site

-> Consolidate traffic from different web email clients (e.g. Yahoo, GMail) as a single referrer
Custom Filter
Field A -> Extract A > Campaign Source > mail.*.(.+)..{2,4}|mail-|inbox.
Field B -> Extract B > Campagin Medium > ^(referral)$
Output To -> Constructor > Campaign Source > webmail
Field A Required > Yes
Field B Required > No
Override Output Field > Yes
Case Sensitive > No

Now that we have consolidated all the webmail to a specific output (webmail), we take that and add it to the email Medium using the filter below.

Custom Filter
Field A -> Extract A > Campaign Source > ^(webmail)$
Field B -> Extract B > Campagin Medium > ^(referral)$
Output To -> Constructor > Campaign Medium > email
Field A Required > Yes
Field B Required > No
Override Output Field > Yes
Case Sensitive > No

Using these filters together will attribute all email traffic received to a single email medium, making it easier to analyse your data traffic.

-> Append slash to request URI
When visitors can access a page with or without using a trailing slash, Google Analytics would record a separate pageview for each case.

NOTE: Note that this filter should be the last filter in the view as to not interfere with the other configurations.

  • Filter Name: Append Slash to Request URI
  • Filter Type: Custom > Advanced
  • Field A -> Extract A:
    • Select Request URI
    • Enter ^(/[a-zA-Z0-9/_\-]*[^/])$
  • Output To -> Constructor:
    • Select Request URI
    • Enter $A1/
  • Select Field A Required
  • Select Override Output Field

-> Conslidate traffic from URLs ending without ‘/’, with ‘/’, with ‘index.htm’, with ‘index.html’, with ‘default.htm’, and with ‘default.html’

-> Remove inaccurate data resulting from users accessing the root website URL (i.e. domain name) in a case different from the original URL e.g.
1. (original)
2. (hit by user)

  • Filter Type: Custom > Lowercase
  • Filter Field: Hostname

-> Consolidate data resulting from users accessing web page path (excluding domain name) in a case different from the original URL e.g.
1. (original)
2. (hit by user)

Custom -> Lowercase -> Request URI

-> Lowercase search terms
The site visitors sometimes use different letter casings for their search terms. Create this filter to enforce all these terms be recorded as lowercase.

  • Filter Name: Lowercase Search Term
  • Filter Type: Custom > Lowercase
  • Filter Field: Search Term

-> Exclude internal traffic (by IP addresses)

-> Exclude only one query parameter from reports

Methods to Strip Queries from URLS in Google Analytics

-> Pages with query parameters show up as multiple entries in reports, so, if query parameters do not influence page content, then exclude all query parameters of a page from report

Custom -> Advanced

‘Field A -> Extract A’ ->/blog/ Request URI -> ‘(.*)\?

Output To -> Constructor‘ -> Request URI -> ‘$A1’

Check ‘Field A required’, as well as ‘Override Output Field‘. Click ‘Save’. (check filter #4)

-> Exclude specific query parameters (from a view, and not from a report)

Admin -> View -> View Settings ->
Exclude URL Query Parameters.

Enter parameter names separated by commas.

-> Include traffic only from specific countries

-> Exclude traffic from specific countries

-> Remove only specific parameters from reports

-> Merge/consolidate www and non-www data
If your website redirects to ‘www’ version, and if an external link to your site refers to the non-www version, you would want to consolidate the tracking results of ‘www’ and ‘non-www’ versions as ‘www’ in your GA report.

  • Filter Name: Search and Replace www Filter
  • Filter Type: Custom > Search and Replace
  • Filter Field: Hostname
  • Search String: ^exampleUSA\.com$
  • Replace String:
  • Apply the filter to exampleUSA Only View

-> Show traffic from a subdirectory only
If you want to show traffic data from only a subdirectory (e.g. ‘’,

Include only -> traffic to the subdirectory -> that are equal to -> ‘/blog/’

  • Show traffic only from multiple specific subdirectories
    Custom Filter
    Filter Field > Request URL
    Filter Pattern > ^/folder/$|^/folder
    Case Sensitive > No

-> Show traffic that originated from
1. Directly (by typing address in browser’s address bar)
2. Referral (by clicking on a link on another website)
2a. Email (by clicking a link in an email)
2b. RSS/Feed
2c. Social media
2d. SMS
2e. chat
3. Search engine (by clicking on a SERP link on an search engine)
3a. organic (by clicking an organic search link)
3b. paid search (by clicking a paid search link)

3a. Show data for organic traffic

  • Filter Name: Include Organic Only
  • Filter Type: Custom > Include
  • Filter Field: Campaign Medium
  • Filter Pattern: organic

3b. Paid search

  • Filter Name: Include Organic Only
  • Filter Type: Custom > Include
  • Filter Field: Campaign Medium
  • Filter Pattern: cpc
  1. Email
  • Filter Name: Include Organic Only
  • Filter Type: Custom > Include
  • Filter Field: Campaign Medium
  • Filter Pattern: email


-> Remove/discard traffic from (a) specific domain(s)

  • Remove self-referral traffic
    Self-referral traffic is traffic that come from within your own website.

-> Remove spam traffic to your website

How to Filter Out Fake Referrals and Other Google Analytics Spam

Definitive Guide to Removing All Google Analytics Spam

-> Remove bots

-> Remove crawler referral spam

-> Remove ghost referral spam
Ghost referral spam is spam traffic that appears in referral GA reports to entice you to click through to their spam-ridden websites. ‘Ghost’ referral traffic, as the name suggests, never actually visits your site, but appears on Google servers when developers send data to it via the Measurement Protocol.

-> Show traffic only from a specific country/region/city

  • ADD FILTER -> Create new filter -> Custom -> Include only -> Country -> India

  • ADD FILTER -> Create new filter -> Custom -> Include -> Filter field: Country -> Filter Pattern: India

-> Show traffic only from your domain / Track/include only internal activity on a website i.e. internal pages visited from within the website
This can be required if someone steals your website code and uses it as their own, without even replacing the Google Analytics code.

Predefined filter -> Include only -> traffic to the hostname -> that contain ->

ECommerce-based filters?

Your Data Is Wrong If You’re Not Using Google Analytics Filters

  • Segments you must apply

-> Users who visited member-pages of your site

-> Segment users who visited a particular subdomain

-> Segment users in a particular age group (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64)

-> Segment users in a custom age group (e.g. 25-30)

-> Segment users by gender

-> Segment users by continent, sub-continent, country, region, city

-> Operating system

-> Operating system version

-> Browser

-> Browser version

-> Screen resolution

-> Device type: Desktop, tablet or mobile

-> Mobile device brand name

-> Mobile device model (e.g. Nexus 8)

-> No. of sessions equals/not equals/greater than/less than ‘x’

-> Days since last session

-> No. of transactions per user

-> No. of transactions per session

-> No. of transactions per hit

-> Session duration

-> Date of first session (on a particular date or between a range of dates)

-> Traffic source (AdWords campaign/email campaign/custom campaign etc.)

-> All social media traffic

-> All traffic except social media traffic

-> Traffic from a specific social media site

-> Traffic from email campaigns
Traffic Sources -> Filter Users -> Medium -> contains -> ’email’

-> Traffic from paid listings/web directories

-> Traffic from SMS campaigns

-> Segment users who converted (how?) after ‘n’ visits

-> Users who visited the site for more than ‘x’ seconds

-> Users who visited more than ‘x’ pages

-> Users who got to your website from Google Images

-> Users who used devices in a specific resolution (e.g. 600px) or within a resolution range (100px to 500px)

-> Users who used ‘x’ no. of keywords in their search to get to your site

-> The ISPs used by users to visit your site

Apply this segment to the Network report under the Audience section in the ‘Reporting’ tabof Google Analytics.

-> People who did not view your brand page (e.g., an “about” page in this example)

-> People who viewed a brand page, but didn’t visit your blog

-> People who viewed both your brand page and your blog

-> Users that search for Q&A-type keywords like ‘how’, ‘what’, ‘vs.’, ‘versus’ etc.

-> Compare traffic from two (or more) cities

-> See duplicate content See what traffic has been generated against your Google Analytics profile by any other hostnames that aren’t yours.

-> See which blog authors posts have been read the most

ECommerce segments


-> Users who abandon the cart and don’t checkout after adding certain items to the cart

-> Segment users who placed order of over $’x’

  • Goals you must use

-> Duration-based

-> Pages/screens per session

-> Revenue-based
Place an order (Completed purchase or pre-order request)

Create an account (Successful sign up, account, or view created)

-> Contact us (Viewed phone number, directions, chat or email)
-> Read reviews (Viewed reviews and ratings)
-> Get callback (Requested service or a phone call)
-> Live chat (Contacted via chat)
-> Update (Downloaded or installed new version)

-> Compare information (Compared features, products, or options)
-> Add to favorites (Saved product or information to a list)
-> Media play (Played interactive media, like a video, slideshow, or product demo)
-> Share / social connect (Shared to a social network or emailed)
-> Sign-up (Subscribe to newsletter, free trials, RSS feed, update alerts, or join group)

Other / Uncategorized
-> White paper downloads
-> Ebook downloads
-> PDFs
-> MP3s

Tracking blog post comments

How To Track WordPress Signups and Comments With Google Analytics

10 Must Track Google Analytics Goals

17 options for using Events Goals reporting in Google Analytics

Step by Step: Setting Up Advanced Google Analytics Goals & Funnel Visualizaitons

  • Events you should have

-> Flag non-interaction events

Non-Interaction Events in Google Analytics

-> Add instances of Bing organic searches to organic search traffic (currently only Google organic searches qualify in GA)

GA provides the following function to allow you to add your own search engines to the list of search engines that are already tracked by GA.

_addOrganic(newOrganicEngine, newOrganicKeyword)

You simply call this function right after var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker(“UA-XXXXXX-X”); to track any custom search engine.

NewOrganicEngine is the words that identify the search engine; in this case we will use “”

newOrganicKeyword is the query string that contains that keywords, in this case it will be “q” as “bing” uses “q” as the query string that contains the keyword.

Here is how your final code will look like

var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker(“UA-XXXXXX-X”);
pageTracker._addOrganic(“”, “q”)

Social analytics
(Measuring data from FB, Twitter, Linkedin etc.)

(not set)

11+ Places Where (not set) Can Strike in Google Analytics



Security/privacy implications


  • To filter out traffic from spiders and bots, go to the view you want to, click ‘View Settings’, check the ‘Exclude all hits from known bots and spiders‘ checkbox in the ‘Bot Filtering’ section.

  • Place the tracking code at the top of the page before the </head> tag.

  • Ensure that all pages in your website are devoid of JavaScript errors, because Google Analytics only functions if the JavaScript code on the page executes.

How to opt out from sending page data to Google Analytics?
Google has also released a browser plugin that turns off data about a page visit being sent to Google

Check if the same GA tracking snippet is present on all pages in a website

Use Screaming Frog to Verify Google Analytics Code

Google Analytics alternatives


Google acquired Urchin Software Corp. in April 2005.

November 14, 2005 – GA was launched

On September 29, 2011, Google Analytics launched Real Time analytics.

On 1 June 2012, Google announced that Google Website Optimizer as a separate product would be retired as of 1 August 2012, and its functionality would be integrated into Google Analytics as Google Analytics Content Experiments.

In October 2012 the latest version of Google Analytics was announced, called ‘Universal Analytics’

Important people in analytics
Avinash Kaushik – Digital Marketing Evangelist at Google


  • GA doesn’t track visits to pages that have been linked from:
    -> social media (e.g. Twitter, Facebook). Any clicks on tweets or posts without tracking code and within a browser will appear as referral traffic.
    -> email clients e.g. Outlook
    -> PDFs

  • GA doesn’t track visits to web pages from non-web links e.g. PDFs and email client like Outlook. Q: Does GA track visits to web pages from links within mobile apps?

  • GA merges the traffic for ‘’, ‘’, and ‘’ under the path ‘/’. This is because GA tracks only the page path and not the domain name.

Create a filter as follows:
Custom -> Advanced -> ‘Field A -> Extract A’: Hostname, ‘(.)’ ->  ‘Field B -> Extract B’: ‘(.)’ -> ‘Output to -> Contstructor’: $A1$B1

6 Less Known Methods To Improve Your Google Analytics Accuracy

  • Links clicked in newsletter emails opened in a mail client e.g. Yahoo or GMail, are recorded as referral traffic unless you add campaign tracking code.

  • Time lag between data collection and report analysis

  • Privacy concerns (cookie law)

  • Links with full URLs (as opposed to relative URLs) may be recorded as referral traffic in Analytics, even though the visit was from another page on your site.

  • Links (both external and internal) with case different than that of the actual URL will be recorded as separate pageviews.

  • Inaccurate data due to sampling by Google
    In Google Analytics, sampling can occur in your reports, during your data collection, or in both places.
    If you are looking at visits over 250k (500K for premium users), Google might show results only from the first 250K (or 500K) visits

Solutions/workarounds to the sampling problem

Understanding Data Sampling in Google Analytics

How to Solve Google Analytics Sampling: 8 Ways to Get More Data

  • Reasons for Inaccurate data due to user behaviour and code structure

GA can’t really keep track of time spent by a visitor unless he or she moves forward to the next page. This means, according to GA, if a user closes the browser tab after visiting a page, the visit length counts as 0 (verify).

This can happen when:
1. someone visits a web page, switches to a new tab, or minimizes the browser, or goes to dinner for two hours leaving the page open, then comes back and starts browsing the page. Here, Google Analytics ends a visitor session after 30 minutes of inactivity. A new session cookie would be placed when the visitor starts browsing again. This will be considered a brand new session by Google Analytics.

  1. Different visitor, same device: John visits for the first time and a cookie is set on his computer. He then goes for a jog. Jane then gets on the computer and visits for the first time These should be counted as two separate visits, but the unique visitor is tied to the cookie and the cookie is tied to the device.

  2. Different device, same visitor: If one person visits your site from three devices (desktop, mobile and tablet), then Analytics will incorrectly tell you that three unique people visited

  3. A web page that uses frames generates multiple pageviews: one for the framing page that contains either a frameset or an iframe tag within its HTML code), and one for each page displayed in a frame. As a result, your pageview totals may be inflated.

Therefore these will be considered visits from the same “unique” person.

  1. For websites using AJAX, navigating to a new page may not require a reload, and thus Google Analytics may not record it as a pageview.

  2. Meta refreshes that automatically refresh the page lead to inflated pageviews.

  • Privacy networks like Tor will mask the user’s actual location and present inaccurate geographical data.

  • Google Analytics might use samples of website data instead of the entire data, if you have a very active website and you try to run a report that includes a large amount of data. In other words, they will not use the whole of your data – it’s too resource intensive for them to do so. Learn more about data sampling here.

  • Privacy concerns w.r.t. cookies

  • Google Analytics isn’t real time, although there is some limited real-time data you can get through the Real Time reports (Overview, Locations, Traffic Sources, Content (or Screens, for Mobile App properties), Events, and Conversions).

Google Analytics Alternatives

Official links

Android app:

iOS app:


Google Analytics Demo Account:

Analytics Training and Support:



Google’s Free Courses at:

Google Analytics IQ Lessons:

Google Analytics certification test:

Free Help Center:

Google Analytics API:

Official Google Analytics Product Forum:!forum/analytics

Official Facebook page:

Official Twitter account:

Official Google+ page:

Official YouTube Channel:

Chrome extensions:
Page Analytics (by Google)


Plugins and extensions for CMSes/platforms

Copy the code that you received in Step 4, and paste it in your theme’s header.php right after the <body> tag (shouldn’t it be just before the end of the ‘head’ tag?).




Q: Why can’t we delete goals in GA?

Deleting Goals in Google Analytics

Q: What additional steps need to be taken if you have a HTTPS website?

Q: How can we track how often an email or newsletter was opened (or viewed)?

Q: How to track phone calls made from websites on mobile?

Q: Is it true that Google Analytics shows incomplete data for age, gender given that there are a certain no. of visitors who do not log in to Google before visiting a page, or are visiting the website from a SMS link or any other source other than Google?

Q: How to track only unique visitors?

Q: How can we apply aggregate functions to data e.g. how to find out the average age of males visiting a particular subdomain?

Q: Logically, can a filter be created to track users that belong only to a specific gender (using only filters, and not using segments)?

Q: What are virtual pageviews in GA?

Q: How does GA work with CRMs (e.g. Salesforce)?

Q: In what scenarios can a single tracking code be placed on multiple websites?

  • How to track page views on Ajax-based sites/Single-page applications?

  • Links with full URLs may record as referral traffic in Analytics, even if the visit was from another page on your site. In such a case, is it then recomended to completely avoid using full URL paths in your website?

  • Does GA track pages that use Flash?

  • What is Google Data Studio?

  • In what scenarios is it viable to have multiple tracking codes on the same website/page?
    You should use only one tag in a page, unless of course you’re trying to execute multiple properties in a single page.

Using multiple tracking codes might be useful if:
– Users with access to different properties need to see data from the same web site, or

  • If you have multiple versions of a web site. You might, for example, want to collect data from using one instance of analytics.js, collect data from in another instance of analytics.js, and use a third instance of analytics.js on both websites to see the aggregate data.

  • What is DoubleClick in relation to Google Analytics? What is dc.js?

  • What is Google Anslytics Solutions Gallery?

  • How to add your own dashboard to the Solutions Gallery?

  • How to track pages belonging to only a specific set of categories (or tags) in a blog-based website?

  • If you have placed the tracking code in a template file (e.g. ‘header.php’, is it possible to exclude the tracking code from certain pages?

Terminology / Glossary

  • Page value
  • Custom variables
  • Hit
    Any individual interaction that you have with the site is called a hit. Most typically a hit is a page view. But it can also be an event or a custom variable (if the scope is set to “hit level”).

  • Account

  • Property
  • View
  • Filter
  • Dimension
    Dimensions are attributes of your data. For example, the dimension City indicates the city, for example, “Paris” or “New York”, from which a session originates. The dimension Page indicates the URL of a page that is viewed.

– Referral traffic is the segment of traffic that arrives on your website through another source, like through a link on another domain.

  • Metrics
    Metrics are quantitative measurements. The metric Sessions is the total number of sessions. The metric Pages/Session is the average number of pages viewed per session.


Analytics Exam

What’s the difference
Segments vs. filters
Segments work on the session-level, and filters working on the hit-level.

Traditional ecommerce tracking vs. enhanced ecommerce tracking

Enhanced Ecommerce tracking in Google Analytics – Beginners Guide

Segments show more data than filters, for the same condition. How?

Google Analytics Filters: Don’t You Forget About Me

Q: What are some specific scenarios where only a filter or a segment must be used?

Dimensions vs. metrics

Goals vs. events

5 Simple Differences Between Goals and Events in Google Analytics and When To Use Them

Filters vs. segments

Entrance vs. session



Which Version of Google Analytics Is Right For You?

The Definitive Guide to Google Analytics Goals

21 Tips to Improve Your Google Analytics Data Analysis

Basic Google Analytics Filters for Every Site

Speak your mind